A Conversation about Race in Video Games

by Sidney Fussell and Jed Pressgrove

Note: This conversation occurred via email and has been edited for clarity and grammar. Sidney Fussell’s writing on race, gender, and video games can be found here. Last but not least, a special thanks to Veerender Jubbal for providing the idea for this conversation.

BioShock Infinite, The Walking Dead, Post-Racial Climate

Jed Pressgrove: Video games tend to get off the hook a little easily when it comes to race. It’s difficult to compare the importance of race to that of gender since they are both connected to class, but it’s interesting that we tend to see more criticism of gender in games compared to criticism of race in games. Look at Grand Theft Auto V. It has a black protagonist, though I didn’t hear much at all about its handling of race. But GTA V not having a female protagonist made quite a few headlines and led to a lot of analysis about the game’s intentions.

Then again, many games don’t give people as much to examine when it comes to race. Just as a simple example, I could name several good or well-written female game characters off the top of my head because there are many female characters, good and bad, to consider. But I would have trouble naming good or well-written characters who aren’t white or Japanese — it wouldn’t take long to run out of potential examples. And the black character I created in Fallout 3 doesn’t seem much different than any other character I could create in the game. Games often come across to me as very post-racial and safe, which strikes me as a limitation.

Sidney Fussell: I think there’s a real fear in engaging with race/racism in games that leads to many developers either omitting them completely or hoping palette swap options will suffice. This is the bare minimum, post-racial climate we find ourselves in, and it’s one I wish more people questioned. In 2014, it’s absurd for racial awareness and a more evolved understanding of racism to be dismissed as “niche.”

Two big releases, BioShock Infinite and The Walking Dead, both had interesting takes on racism I’d like to explore. Jed and I may disagree about The Walking Dead (it’s excellent, he’s wrong), but a scene midway through “Starved for Help” winningly subverts the post-racial “safe zone” many games hide in. Protagonist Lee Everett, the rare Black everyman, and redneck Papa Bear Kenny attempt to break into a locked door in a barn. Kenny asks if Lee knows how to pick the lock because “You’re…you know…urban.” Lee responds with a frustrated “Come on, man!” before a guilty and embarrassed Kenny quickly apologizes and the two come up with a different plan for entering the room.

The brief exchange is played for laughs but does more to humanize the duo and characterize The Walking Dead’s world than the hours of hackneyed melodrama in BioShock Infinite. When I say I want a game that’s conscious or aware, I’m asking for a game where the characters are shown having a relationship with race and racism. Lee and Kenny like each other very much, but they still harbor assumptions about each other based on race. And that’s how it is in real life. We all have relationships with racism — we overcome it, capitulate to it, conceal it, etc. Kenny awkwardly tried to excuse and sanitize his own racism, but he’s no villain. He’s human — he makes mistakes and occasionally says stupid shit. The Walking Dead doesn’t trot out racism just to remind us that racism is bad; it uses racism to show how identities affect the dynamics of a relationship — identities that the game observes and engages and doesn’t colorblindly ignore.

I think The Walking Dead’s approach is a much better way of engaging with racism than BioShock Infinite’s. For all of Infinite’s allusions to miscegenation, lynching, genocide, eugenics, etc., Booker and Elizabeth have no relationship to the racism that surrounds them. Instead of exploring either character’s prejudices or privileges, Booker’s stoicism and Elizabeth’s naivety ensure they are never “colored” by racism. They recognize it as a moral wrong but have no relationship to it. Racism only touches the game’s villains, implying it as the unique attribute of the corrupt and monstrous, as opposed to something everyone deals with and has a relationship with their entire lives. It’s an archaic take on racism that privileges the isolationism the game reserves for Booker and Elizabeth. It’s especially frustrating since Booker begins mowing down black men Resident Evil 5 style in the game’s final act, (color)blindly deciding they were as bad as Comstock’s men.

A racially conscious game is one that recognizes relationships with race/racism aren’t voluntary and doesn’t use racism as a strawman to characterize the bad guys. That’s neither the identity of racists nor the function of racism. It’s a frankly pathetic way to mimic social evolution.  It’s time games stepped up and made the same commitment to narrative innovation and character exploration that they have to technical advancement.

Jed Pressgrove: You’re right about that scene between Lee and Kenny in The Walking Dead; it goes beyond humorous intentions and serves as a great example of commentary on race. But Telltale’s The Walking Dead could have gone further like George Romero’s Night of the Living Dead. The black protagonist in Romero’s film ultimately struggles against the social construction of race. Lee Everett (and everyone else in The Walking Dead) is ultimately at odds with fictional zombies, not race. The majority of the game tries to manipulate our emotions about survival rather than compel us to consider social reality.

Dark Souls, Life vs. Death, Gamifying Personal Experiences

Jed Pressgrove: I think part of the reason games in general lack narrative innovation and character exploration in terms of race is that games are too concerned with death. A fixation on death tends to center on the self. How do I stay alive? What would I do in this life-or-death situation? These questions distract us from other questions, such as: how do different people live? This brings me to an interesting thing I recently saw in Dark Souls, a game obsessed with death. When you’re creating a character in Dark Souls, you can change the skin color/ethnicity of your character. While this option might satisfy some, I think the game leaves a lot to the imagination. For example, if you choose the Great Swamp color/ethnicity, the game tells you that the character faces prejudice — the character is darker than white. Yet there is another character with darker skin who comes with no such description of prejudice. All of this suggests that race is merely a play thing in Dark Souls. In the game’s eyes, all protagonists/players are made equal through death, but such a mentality distracts us from questions about life. I’m not trying to say that Dark Souls is irresponsible so much as illustrative of how games often encourage us to think of death as the main obstacle in life. Meanwhile, social constructions like race are simple background characteristics.

What’s interesting to me is that we do see many games breaking away from the “do or die” mold of classics like Space Invaders and Donkey Kong. Games like Actual Sunlight and Dys4ia clearly encourage us to consider the lives of different people. And we’re even seeing some games stay true to the old-school survival mentality while incorporating truths about social reality — Grand Titons’ combination of trans woman identity and shooting is a fascinating case. At some point I expect to see some very personal accounts about race in games. The question is when?

Sidney Fussell: “How do different people live?” is a great starting point for exploring identity in games. I think zombie media is an especially apt space for this question, because characters are stripped of the institutions that mask their prejudices. Kenny’s misconceptions about black criminality would’ve gone largely unquestioned in his native Florida, and Lee’s elitism is, if anything, encouraged among academics. Their partnership is great because it’s so implausible in the “real” world, where these institutions function to segregate us. But as much as I liked Walking Dead, it was only passingly concerned with how people live; the game is about how they die. Or un-die, I guess.

Dying is as ubiquitous a mechanic in games as pressing Start. It usually means failure — if the player avatar dies, it means you’ve screwed something up. I think a game like Dark Souls is interesting because dying isn’t the Ultimate Failure, it’s part of learning how to play the game.  It’s pointless to tell the player “don’t die” — it’s unavoidable. I think this is an acknowledgment of how similarly pointless it is to tell players “don’t fail.” Just make dying/failure part of the play process, and its meaning changes from “you’ve failed” to “you need to learn something.” It’s an interesting way to become comfortable with death/failing and is really the only aspect of Dark Souls (“Dark Soils” as I besmirch it on Twitter) I’d like to see more games adapt. If dying wasn’t the only way to communicate certain meanings to players, we might see life explored in more interesting ways.

I haven’t died yet, so if I wanted to make a game about some aspect of my life, I’d need some other way to convey failure/miscalculation/error.  I think indies exploring people’s lives are expanding our vocabulary of game mechanics, “breaking away from the ‘do or die’ mold” like you said and encouraging different ways of communicating success, failure, winning, etc. Speaking personally, my friends and I once joked about gamifying (that’s a thing, right?) a racial aspect of my job. I talk to people on the phone a lot, who then come into the office with some line akin to “Oh, I didn’t expect you to be Black!” which I’ve never managed to inure myself to. We imagined a Guitar Hero style quick-time event where the player inputs commands to alter my voice to sound more typically Black. On reflection, I realized “winning” meant I’m avoiding the awkwardness, but capitulating to a problematic definition of Black voices. And “losing” meant I’d have to endure the awkwardness but get to screw with (white) people’s ideas about what Black people sound like, talk like, etc.

I think exploring race and identity is a great way to complicate meanings and mechanics in games because life is complicated. I think translating that fluidity in gaming would make for more interesting, inclusive games. We all win and lose in various hazily defined ways that don’t involve rag-doll physics or torture gorn. I’d love to see games tackle messy notions of identity because I think it allows for new aspirations for the medium beyond simply being profitable.

Jed Pressgrove: Your idea about gamifying someone’s “racial” voice might also apply to certain white people. I only say this from my experience as a Mississippian, but there’s this idea of some poor Southern white people “trying to be black,” including the use of pronunciations and expressions that people associate with “blackness.” But are all of these poor whites really “trying” anything? I think the game idea you mentioned could tackle that tricky question that often gets overlooked in favor of simple stereotyping: why does anyone sound the way they do? It could be a learning experience about background and politics.

Preaching to the Choir, Racial Utopia, Progress?

Jed Pressgrove: Of course, there’s a fine line between a learning experience and something seemingly noble that confirms our expectations. Since our last exchange, I played through Always Sometimes Monsters, which touts the innovation of your racial/gender/orientation status affecting events in the game. I played as a black gay man. Interestingly, I felt the game reminded me that my character was gay more than anything else. There were only two instances where I felt the game commented on my character’s racial status in an honest way, and in both cases it was to show how uncaring a nonplayable character was. In the abstract, this game seems to say that race is an outmoded notion bought into by assholes, as opposed to a deeply ingrained idea that we should overcome as individuals and a society. I can say that Always Sometimes Monsters is a little more ambitious than fantasy games with elves, but its commentary amounts to a few “preaching to the choir” moments.

Then again, the appearance of racial harmony in a story isn’t necessarily indicative of a colorblind fantasy. I guess the question is whether the harmony feels odd or authentic.

Sidney Fussell: As a player, I’m not interested in either extreme. I don’t want a utopic Captain Planet kumbaya setting, nor do I want pure racial tribalism. I’m interested in empathy and exploration. I’m interested in game mechanics, settings, and characters designs that are diverse, insightful, and entertaining. I think one-off micro games — how speech affects racial perception, for example — that are specific experiences can handle this a bit better. I mostly play RPGs, and while fantasy epics routinely tackle racism through metaphor, I find it has a sanitizing effect.

I once wrote about the problematic racial attribute system in older Elder Scrolls games. Specifically, how Redguards (ostensibly Sub Saharan Africans) having bonuses to Strength and penalties to Intelligence is problematic. The popular counter was that Nords had a similar attribute dynamic, so it “wasn’t racist.” Of course, the difference is history — the expectation for people within the African diaspora to be athletic and unintelligent has been backed by everything from science to religion to academia to literature for centuries. I find players aren’t necessarily adept at translating these metaphors into concrete ways of understanding race or racism.

I also think the Grand Conversation on Race in Games needs to talk about the metric by which we measure progress. I’m certainly thrilled to see more brown folks on the covers of games as well as discussing and critiquing them, but with this new generation that I’m paying hundreds of dollars to be a part of, I think it’s critical that we set goals. Utopia isn’t anyone’s goal, but it’d be nice to at least start chipping away at the culture of contrasting backlashes we slip backwards into whenever something/someone is deemed racist, homophobic, etc.

If games can make players feel like they’re the world’s greatest heroes, strongest marines, most cunning thieves and secret agents, they’re more than capable of changing a few minds and making a few players go, “Huh. I don’t think that way, but I can see that.” I think it’s time developers aimed higher for themselves and for players and let go of the “oh no this is too political” fears that have stuck in the past hardware cycle. And contrary to popular belief, I think a Conversation may be what starts that process.


  1. Thank you for posting this conversation on race, like you’ve mentioned it’s very rarely touched upon, and it’s nice to see such a well natured conversation on it. Though I think one factor of it’s rarity is that, in comparison to women and LGBT folk, African Americans are comparatively silent about this issue. When they do speak about it, it’s more to each other, rather than to video game enthusiasts as a whole. The reasons for this I am not completely certain of, and while I myself am black, I don’t feel comfortable speaking for anyone but myself.

    That said, I too rarely ever think about the lack of black characters in video games. While I have family and friends who are bothered by, or at least mention, this lack of representation (Though this is in reference to media in general), I myself have rarely if ever been bothered by it. If there is anything that does bother me about black characters in video games, it’s the resulting aftermath of seeing a black character in video games. I often see people lose any sort of sense they have when it comes to this. Take, for example, the reaction to Crackdown having a black character on it’s cover. Maybe I was looking in the wrong places, but the reactions I saw to this were not good to put it lightly.

    I feel I must mention this: I’m not a fan of the stereotypical big-scary-black-guy, just like many folks are not. But I think this might be caused by designers being afraid of making a character that is not “Black enough”. In honesty, I see shades of that in this article as well, and even I had some misgivings about it when doing personal work. I think this is due partially to the common image put forth by a too-large portion of African American media figures. After all, when one is exposed to images of blacks as rappers, sports players, angy-afrocentrics, etc, portraying a black person who is none of these things will be somewhat difficult, and will feel “post-racial”, though I can attest to many who do not fit this mold.

    It may be a lack of understanding on my part, as race does not come into my mind very often, rather I try to look more at the minute to minute actions of people rather than their skin/facial construction. But my overall view on race in games is this: I don’t believe in burdening people of other races with making the absolute most accurate depiction of being African American, this is a task I would leave to black people themselves. With all the tools, information, and distribution methods to make and sell games, there is no longer any excuse to not put what we feel is a unique view of life into the forefront. If the LGBT community can make their own pieces of digital entertainment, then African Americans can do so as well. If a person of another race wants to design a black character because it fits their vision, the only thing I would ask is for them to do what they believe is right for the character, with no worries about them being “black enough”.

    As a tangent: Your mention of the ubiquity of death in video games stuck a chord in me, as I’ve been wondering about a similar topic for a while now. While failure and death can be and are often linked together, I think the obsession games have with death at this time has more to do with video game’s strong preference for violence as the go to place for solving problems, presenting challenges, excitement, humor, etc. How many games can you name where the game’s rules do not demand that the player kill someone (Exempting abstracts games like puzzles)? While there may be a decent deal of indie games that either don’t do this (Almost all Myst-like first person walkers), or encourage the play to do the opposite (Iji, UnderTale), once you get to the big box games, they’re mostly bloodbaths. With examples like those, how can one NOT develop an unhealthy fixation on death?

  2. the only thing i’m going to say about the race aspect in bioshock infinite is this. the setting of it was in 1912. more than a hundred years ago. racism also wasnt the big issue in the game because of the objective of the game was for booker to get elizabeth off the flying city. the story in the game was more about the relationship between booker elizabeth and the antogist. i cannot remember his name. race is a very small issue in that game and i dont even know why you are using bioshock infinite as an example. my view.

  3. Great article. As for GTAV, notice that Franklin, the black protagonist, has an awkward relationship with Lamar, his childhood friend from their original neighbourhood, making for plenty of dialogue between the two about which of them is a sell-out. And plentiful use of the N word, too!

  4. thanks for this- i wondered whether Elder Scrolls were going to get a mention- I always liked the way that you had positive and negative aspects to every character’s starting point, but they never stopped you from succeeding, just made some things harder. I used to really like the way that different races/clans/faiths interacted in the games- it was clumsy gameplay but you had to put effort into building relationships…

  5. I believe that The Walking Dead was able use the everyday racism that exists inside us as stereotypes to provide comedic relief in way that doesn’t offend anyone. Skyrim was also able to provide that realistic feeling racism using fictional races to not offend anyone but efficiently provides that sense of stereotypes.

  6. Great read, I cpuld name countless black characters in games. Although not many are main characters. The biggest one being from two GTA games.

    I would like to know though what the the stance on Resident Evil 5. When it first came out, a big uproar came about the game being racist. Mainly because all of the so called zombies were black.

    I do think though looking for more personal reasons or something more in games isn’t needed. I could be wrong, but I feel most gamers don’t look for deeper meanings. Or even worry about that.

    Not saying its true, this all just my opinion on things. Very good read though, enjoyed reading this, thanks for sharing.

  7. I like the bit you two talked about in “How do different people live?”. Obviously zombie games force you deal with peoples’ lifestyle choices, but I think that well-constructed RPGs do this quite regularly.

    Exploring worlds and finding new and diverse towns does so much to make RPGs more compelling. Generally, in good RPGs, the people in these distinct towns have their own personal problems to deal with, and as a player you get to interface with them and learn from them.

    So I have to ask (if I’ve understood correctly), if you have any thoughts on this note at all, would this constitute as “gamifying” “racial” voices? If so, why do you think that might be a bad/good thing?

    Sweet post, btw!

    1. Thanks for your comment! I want to make sure I’m understanding your question: are you asking if conversations you have with NPCs in RPGs constitute the gamification of “racial” voices?

      (Also, I agree with you that distinct towns in RPGs are a treat.)

      1. Yeah, sorry I worded it all a bit confusingly. You understood it though.

        I kind of understood your take on the “gamification of ‘racial’ voices” as a bad thing in games. But if applied to the thinking based around towns in RPGs that have different ‘races’ than you’d normally run into- I don’t think that’s akin to stereotyping lazily.

      2. Ah, so you took our points about gamification of racial voices as negative criticism. Speaking personally, I think Sidney and I were more or less exploring how one could address the assumption that different races always speak differently in a game form. As far as how this is handled in RPGs, I would need a concrete example to examine before saying a game handled the idea in a positive or negative way, as people do talk differently based on where they grew up.

  8. I think this discussion was pretty interesting. I never was considering that topic. But this was a very informative. Keep up the good work.

  9. Wow, I did not know that the designers and developers are really taking so much of time discussing how different races are portrayed in their games. I mean, they are just games 🙂

  10. I am generally booked about things and keep my poinions to myself at all times; nevertheless, your article about this regulates a degree of interest. I happened throughout your post by method of an online search engine, and I am undoubtedly lucky that I did! I am checking out about the newest trends concerning this as a method of an ad-hoc refresher course, to those seeking knowledge, remember of exactly what is mentioned here. To the wuathor, thank you for sharing your insight.

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